History of the CFB
There have been many changes to the law since the CFB was established in 1988. Learn more about the evolution of the CFB and its mandates.
As a result of several corruption scandals, a series of ethics reforms is enacted, most notably the Campaign Finance Act. Through a city referendum, NYC voters approved a Charter revision establishing the Campaign Finance Board (CFB). The independent, nonpartisan agency is charged with limiting the role and influence of private money in the political process by providing public matching funds to candidates running for city office. The CFB is also mandated to publish a voter guide and provide public disclosure of campaign finance information.
The Board disburses $4.5 million in public matching funds, matching private contributions from NYC residents at a rate of $1-to-$1 (up to the first $1,000 per contributor), to 36 candidates in the citywide elections. The first Voter Guide is published in English and Spanish, and distributed to nearly 3 million households in NYC.
In response to feedback from candidates, the Candidate Services Unit (CSU) is created. CSU works closely with campaigns, explaining the way the Program works, and helps campaigns comply with the law.
Nearly $6.5 million in public matching funds is paid to 65 participating candidates. The CFB creates software (C-SMART) to assist candidates in organizing and filing their financial disclosures electronically. The Voter Guide is expanded to include printings in Chinese. New York City voters approve term limits by referendum, limiting all city office holders to two terms (four years per term).
Legislation is enacted requiring Program participants running for citywide offices to participate in a series of public debates as a condition of receiving public matching funds.
Over $6.9 million in public matching funds is distributed to 85 candidates. The CFB’s website launches in July, providing instantaneous access to campaign finance disclosure and other candidate information.
Through legislation and a citywide referendum, contribution limits are reduced, a ban is placed on corporate contributions, and the public matching funds rate changes from $1-to-$1 for the first $1,000 per contributor to $4-to-$1 for the first $250 per contributor.
With term limits creating an unprecedented number of open seats, a historic number of candidates join the Program, taking advantage of the new, more generous matching rate. Over $42 million in public matching funds is distributed to 199 participants. The attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11th force a postponement of primary elections and displace CFB employees from their office. Despite working from a temporary office at Fordham University, the CFB responds successfully to the needs of hundreds of first-time candidates. A searchable database is added to the CFB website, allowing the public and press to view and sort data on campaign fundraising and spending.
New legislation expands the CFB disclosure requirements to all candidates despite their participation status in the Program. All candidates are also subject to the CFB’s contribution limits and ban on corporate contributions. The new law creates a category called “limited participant” for candidates who wish to participate in the Program, but fund their campaigns with personal money.
Over $24 million in public matching funds is paid to 108 participants. The CFB makes significant changes to the Voter Guide, making it more accessible and easier to read. CFB debates are broadcast in Spanish, Chinese, and Korean for the first time.
New legislation establishes that contributions from lobbyists, their spouses, and domestic partners are no longer eligible to be matched with public funds.
New legislation severely restricts contributions from people who do business with the city and prohibits contributions from LLCs and partnerships. The public matching funds rate changes from $4-to-$1 up to the first $250 per contributor to $6-to-$1 up to the first $175 per contributor.
In the 2009 elections, $28.0 million is paid to 140 participating candidates. Despite the extension of term limits in 2008, the elections are very competitive, with a narrow general election margin in the mayor’s race, vigorous open-seat races for public advocate and comptroller, and five Council challengers defeating incumbents in primaries.
In Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that federal limits on political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions are unconstitutional. Voters overwhelmingly approve an amendment to the NYC Charter that requires independent expenditures in city elections to be disclosed and reported to the CFB. The November 2010 Charter revision also reconstituted the independent Voter Assistance Commission (VAC) within the CFB as the Voter Assistance Advisory Committee (VAAC). The Voter Assistance Unit is created to implement the voter engagement mandates to the CFB by the Charter.
The U.S. Supreme Court issues its decision in McComish v. Bennett. The decision finds that “bonus” matching funds provided to candidates in Arizona’s public financing system who faced high-spending opponents or outside spending campaigns are unconstitutional. As a result, bonus funds in New York City’s system are no longer available to candidates facing high-spending non-participants.
After an unprecedented yearlong process of public comment, the CFB adopts rules implementing the mandate for disclosure of independent expenditures.
Legislation enacted in early 2013 amends the Charter’s requirement to disclose independent expenditures, exempting “membership communications” from disclosure. During the 2013 citywide elections, $38.2 million is paid to 149 participating candidates. For the first time since the matching rate was increased in 1998, a participating candidate is elected mayor. The CFB unveils NYCVotes.org, a unique resource for civic engagement that allows New Yorkers to make contributions and access election information via their smartphones. The printed Voter Guide is distributed in Bengali for the first time, and the CFB produces its first video Voter Guide, which is televised the week prior to the election as well as integrated into the online Guide.
Legislation is adopted to strengthen the requirements for disclosure of independent expenditures in New York City elections. The new law requires spenders to list their top three contributors on their communications, and to disclose more details about their largest contributors, making it more difficult for the ultimate funders to shield their identity from public view. New legislation is passed requiring candidates to include “paid for by” notices on all their communications, which bans anonymous communications from city elections.